Geography

Mobile Checkin Apps

In the first year's of Android smartphones applications such as WhereGowalla, and Foursquare were the vanguard in providing a checking service that not only provided a useful utility purpose but also made the experience fun. It didn't take long before Google made an extension out of Google Maps called Latitude which had huge advantages in live tracking contacts and pulling one's own historical data whether it be manually or through an API that once existed. Social networks such as Facebook eventually made their own check-in service, Facebook Check-in, creating a more social experience allowing a user to check themselves into a location but also checking who is with them at a location or an event similar to Foursquare. Sometimes applications like Yelp  include a checkin service but not as their primary feature.

The Where app was one of the first geospatial directories to look for nearby events and places relevant to the users interests locally when Android first came out and Google Maps mobile was less encompassing in features. The user could quickly find local yellow book listings, restaurants, and other businesses based off category or search.Where had a checkin service which helped in giving a User local ads and deals around the user along with a variety of other options. The checkin feature in the "Where" application was hidden and became lost in the depth of features their application had. Overall it was a very good application but Where was acquired by Ebay/Paypal in 2011 and eventually faded into history no longer available to download.

Status: Acquired in 2011 - App No Longer Available

Gowalla was fun application to checkin because it was about awarding users badges for checking in to certain types of places often or a variety of places. In addition users or organizations could make their own checkin challenges to submit to the public to achieve custom badges, such as checking into every country at Epcot to achieve the "Around the World" Badge. This was also a business model for them as they could get companies to create challenges for checking in to certain restaurants or businesses. At the time is was looked at as a competing service with Foursquare as they both emerged as similar start-up checkin services the same year. Sadly the fun checkin service Gowalla was bought by Facebook in December of 2011. The application was dissolved and forgotten and the acquired team team went on to work on the checkin service at Facebook.

Status: Acquired in 2011 - App No Longer Available

Google Latitude had a variety of unique capabilities. It not only showed the users's location on the map but also the users contacts once they were invited and accepted to share location data. The application also stored the history of a user's location data allowing them to pull the data historically through a web interface and even export the data as a KML viewable in Google Earth. The service allowed for a live KML service for each user depending on the shared permissions allowed a huge flexibility in how this data can be used. Google created an API for latitude which allowed for other mobile applications such as Latify to standup which creating a unique way to use the live and historical data pushing it to Fusion Tables to do even more. The checkin service worked alongside the live tracking to actively make aware the users location relative to contacts using the same application. At one point Google even created a unique statistics page connected to the historical data page which a user can view all the checkins and view a graphical visualization of where they go the most, Airport connections they've made, and a fun chart in how far they've traveled relative to the distance from the Moon. Google Latitude was a baked well put together product which eventually was stripped and integrated into Google+ for their location sharing service. Checkins became directly integrated with posting on Google+ and the API for Google Latitude disappeared completely. Users can still pull historical data from the location history page which includes data from the current Google+ integration but this doesn't include checkin data. (https://maps.google.com/locationhistory/b/0

Status: Checkin Features and Location Sharing Transferred to Google+

Facebook offers a straightforward checkin service that allows the user, similar to Google+, to checkin as a post in Facebook. The post can include a picture or a description of activity. A unique feature to checking in just like on Foursquare is that you can include who is with you, adding friends from your contact list, which checks them in as well. Other than being a social checkin service sharing the event with your contacts on Facebook checking in on Facebook as no added value besides adding to the history of your activity in your timeline. If this checkin post was made public then a developer could extract the checkins to a map using the Facebook API applying value to third parties not necessarily the user.

Status: Operational and remains consistent

Yelp's application helps users find places nearby. Yelp is known for their user driven review system and their mobile application is an extension of that. Checking-in using Yelp allows you to share your experience with your contacts on Facebook and Twitter. Another form of checking in is using Yelp's feature to reserve a table at a venue using OpenTable, a separate application but in this case its reservation services are integrated into Yelp.

Status: Operational and remains consistent

Foursquare Old Logo

Foursquare New Logo Finally we have Foursquare. With Gowalla and Where dropping out Foursquare has risen above the rest as one the premier checkin apps for mobile. When Foursquare started out, their features were similar to Gowalla in that they offered badges for completing certain types of checkin accomplishments like checking into a Bar ten times. Like Gowalla Foursquare the application experience was wrapped around the concept of checking in. However, what stood them out was their business plan involved advertising local businesses. Local businesses could promote deals based on if someone checks into their establishment and if the user is someone who has checked in the most above everyone else they are labeled "The Mayor". With that titled the user maybe entitled to additional deals premium discounts or deals at that establishment. Another feature was the competitive point system which added to the Mayorship on a more open scale but you can compete for points on whoever checks into places the most between you and your contacts. That Gamification using badges, points, discounts and deals based on checkins, and the Mayorship feature quickly made Foursquare the premium Location checkin based service. Users are also able to export their checkin data as RSS/KML/ICS. Developers have an API they can pull from as well allowing them to take advantage of the Foursquare checkin service in their own applications.

Foursquare has come along way since its launch in 2009. In the last week the company has separated their application into two separate application aimed at serving two different purposes; Foursquare and Swarm. Checkin features have now been watered down into Swarm which advertises on Google Play to be a more focused on the social aspect of checking in with your contacts as mentioned with the following features:

  • Quickly open up the app to see who is out nearby. 
  • Checking in is faster and more fun than ever.
  • Got an idea for something fun to do? Easily message all of your nearby friends.

You can still checkin with Swarm but its lost the appeal as it no longer has the popular features such as Mayorships and checkin discounts you previously had with the original Foursquare application. The Foursquare application maintains the name but has evolved into features dedicated to finding locations you are interested in based off of what they know about you. As the application learns more about what you like in different venues the searches begin to become more personalized. When you find an establishment you can view tips about the venue. If you leave tips or share your experience about the place you are at you earn "expertise". The service seems wrapped around the idea of finding local knowledgeable experts who use the application and rating them among their peers. In comparison its a different spin on Yelp reviews. 

The new redesign and separation of Foursquare into two applications has come with much criticism. Many people don't like that they now have to use two applications instead of one. Others are wondering what happened to the Badges and Mayorship features which made Foursquare a popular service to begin with. Comments in both apps indicate they don't understand the purpose of using one or the other now. With these growing pains and user frustration many users are now being driven back to Facebook or Yelp for their checkin services.

Status: Checkin services are now transferred to Swarm App. Foursquare App itself doesn't have checkin feature any longer but now provides enhanced intelligent discovery and search based on user interests.

In summary, Checkin services still have a strong presence in the mobile world and there are many small scale ones out there I have not listed in this article but the above highlights the major ones that reach the masses. However, checkin applications are becoming less of a standalone application and more of a side feature alongside a social experience or discovery of local businesses to promote deals and events. This isn't bad but at the same time current versions of the remaining checkin services that exist no longer have the gamification or competitive feel that created that fun factor giving people that additional incentive to checkin even if their wasn't a deal offered or a friend in the area. This could be because the concept of checking-in is based off relying on a manual workflow where the users press a button to check themselves in. With refined location-based technology on mobile platforms checking-in could become more automated so it may not be as important in finding ways to encourage the users to checkin compared to taking advantage of their devices location data to give them what they are really looking for; local deals and social-geo interaction. As much as Checkin applications are moving in this direction they risk changing things to fast or too drastically for the user to understand the benefit while sacrificing what users liked about the old versions of checkin applications. Latitude into Google+ is a good example and so is the recent conversion of Foursquare.

Thank you for your time in reading this post. Please comment on your opinions on checkin services. I'd love to hear which service you use the most and why. What do you think of the new Foursquare/Swarm? What do you miss about checkin services in the past?

Geotagged Photos - Who does it better?

For the sake of this post we are going to focus on the mobile aspect of the term with an emphasis on Android devices comparing applications that handle geotagging a little differently between each other. First of all, let's answer the question what is a Geotagged photo?

"A geotagged photograph is a photograph which is associated with a geographical location by geotagging. Usually this is done by assigning at least a latitude and longitude to the image, and optionally altitude, compass bearing and other fields may also be included."

("Geotagged Photograph", 2014)

Before we get into applications that can take advantage of a Geotagged photos let's start by how to take one. At the very least you need your GPS turned on and some camera applications require you to go into the options and give the application permission to tag the location to your image as you take it so you will want to check this before you get started. I'm currently using a Nexus 5 and the location option for my photos is turned on at default. This means every time I take a picture a location is attached in the metadata of the image file itself; keep note as that fact is important later. However, with my Nexus 5 and other smartphones this fact varies as if I don't have the GPS turned on it will associate a best guess of where I might be which may default to the Cell Tower location itself, best guess based off cell tower triangulation, or if I have WiFi on the location of the router. If none of the above are available no location information will be tagged to the photo.

So if our goals was to just take a Geotagged photo then we are done right? Sure, but what's the value of tagging the location to images and what do we do with the photo from here?

Attaching location to information has numerous uses but for the common user adding this information is another useful way of helping you search for these images or organize them later. For instance many organize photos by date, event, or people around when the photo is taken. Location gives user the option to find photos based on a map, which in many cases, this is much more efficient in exploring the past rather than finding one particular photo through albums of thousands of photographs. By adding a temporal feature to the map a user can then explore photos taken through time even as events or overlaid at the same spot. This takes us into applications that can help you take advantage of the location data on your photos as each may offer you a different experience depending on what you would like to do.

With Instagram there are two ways to add a photo. One is to upload a photo directly from your phone and the other is to use the application itself to take a photo. Both options will eventually ask me if I want to add a location to my Instagram post and I believe this is more for privacy than anything else. Now this is what is unique about Instagram. Although it will read the location info on your photo to get an idea of where you took it Instagram is actually using that data to be attached to alongside your photo putting the geo data in the Post metadata not the online version of your image meaning once you upload your photo to Instagram the geo data is stripped.

Facebook, Foursquare, and Twitter are the same in regards to how they use Geo metadata. Initially they may take advantage of the information embedded in the image to add to the Post metadata but once uploaded to those applications the images are remade and the geo-data itself is stripped. For Facebook you can edit and change the location of an the image which has the benefit to adding location to images to which didn't originally have this information however the app doesn't actually embed that within the image itself just alongside it.

Why does this matter? One simple word, "Reusable". Well let's say you are using one of these applications as a primary storage for all of your images. You may want to download and reuse the images in something else or perhaps you may someday want to transfer your images to a new storage location. The fact that applications such as Facebook strip the original metadata hurts you as you are then missing information about those photos that make it special.

Should I still use Facebook and Foursquare for photos? For storing photos, No. Use of these applications is practically unavoidable though as everyone uses them for other purposes such as communication and sharing experiences with friends and family. There's nothing wrong with sharing photos to these apps but I would recommend storing your original geotagged photos elsewhere. Another reason is in addition to some of your metadata being stripped the images themselves are reconverted into a lower quality image for online efficiency for those applications. Users sometimes have the option to retain and store the full resolution image but that's a feature that may not be turned on default, just something to be aware of if you care about your photos beyond just sharing them.

Geotagged Data in image Google+ and Flikr are among the best mainstream photo storing applications. Both maintain the original metadata to include geographic location even after editing in those applications. Google+ is known more as a social tool but when you make a post and attach one your photos it retains the Geo-data and allows the user to attach a location to the post separately. This means when you view a post on Google+ from someone who posts from their mobile device you can potentially see where they made the post and when you click the image you can still see all the original image metadata. When you download your images from either Flikr and Google+ you retain everything. Google+ and Flikr just like Facebook also allow you to add location to photos that didn't originally have that info, but once again, the unique difference is these applications actually add the geodata to the image metadata itself which makes these two optimal online storage locations for your photos. These applications provide data transparency allowing you to view the metadata of the images, resusable, and flexibility to let you use them however you want. Flikr even has a feature where you can view all of the publicly viewable Geotagged photos in a map, https://www.flickr.com/map

Panoramio

Panoramio

Another great application worth an honorable mention is Panoramio. There used to be a mobile plugin downladoable from the Google Play store to allow you to upload geotagged images straight to Panoramio but these days its only accessible via desktop. Panoramio only takes Geotagged photos however it does let you edit the photos location after upload. In addition everyone's photos on Panoramio are publicly viewable and searchable on the map as seen to the left. I don't use Panoramio to store my images but instead to share my best geotagged photos.

Why should knowing how geotagging works important to developers?

Knowing how applications use geotagged information is vital to accuracy of the data itself and defining what the data says about the users or their content. Is the geographic location related to the post? Is it related to where the user posted about the event, where the user took the photo itself, both? If I'm looking for geospatial data on my users where do I find it? Am I looking at the images or should I look at something else. Google+ for example may contain multiple layers information that can be use in defining activity on a map. For example when creating an event that event may have a location attached, each post may have a location, and each image. Think of it has defining regional location all the way down to specific location telling a story as time goes on. As a developer this may help you define what activity you want to associate with users depending on where they are so identifying accuracy of geodata is important.

Please let us know in the comments what you think.

There are many more applications out there that take advantage of geotagged photos, this is just a few to help us define the topic. What is your favorite image storage application and why? Do you care about image location?

Referenced Sources

1. Geotagged Photograph. (2014). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geotagged_photograph